Monday, December 30, 2019
Social Problems Created by Gambling Submitted to Ms. Joyce Lim Senior Executive MEMO TO: Ms Joyce Lim FROM: Andy Tan, Executive, Ministry for Home Affairs DATE: 28 September, 2012 SUBJECT: How to minimize social problems arising from gambling As you requested on August 2012, our report outlines the findings into how to minimize social problems arising from gambling. Since casino started operations, casino-related crimes have been occurring on average once a month. The more worrying trends are the increasing number of addicts and regression of their age. It has been reported that more youths 18 Ã¢â¬â 21 are seeking help for their addictions. (Channelnewsasia.com, February 8, 2012) FirstlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is a moderate measure in controlling FVÃ¢â¬â¢s gambling addiction. This might cause respondents to instead double their bet in a visit causing more damage; however the NCPG can still review individuals and place them under casino exclusion instead. 2. Amendments to Casino Exclusion We suggest allowing issuance of Family Exclusion Order even if respondent is absent. A mandatory assessment and counseling should be conducted before allowing their orders to be revoked. By simplifying and accelerating the process of applying an order so we can prevent respondent from incurring bigger debts. We suggest allowing applicants to just have the same address as the respondent instead of obtaining their Identification Number. We propose that fingerprints scanning be used on all locals visiting the casinos to prevent impersonators trying to circumvent the exclusion order. 3. Responsible Gambling and Personal Responsibility CasinoÃ¢â¬â¢s employees should be trained to spot at-risk gamblers and advise them to seek help. We recommend screening mandatory videos to appeal to patrons their Ã¢â¬ËrealÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility and to gamble within their limit before entering the casino. 4. Increasing Entry Levy By increasing the entry levy to $200, we will discourage youth as they have less spending power from visiting the casino. This will cause uproar with current patrons; however this will cause youths and current patrons toShow MoreRelatedLegalization of Gambling Pro/Pro1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGregory Kastendike Engl 101 Tuesday November 28, 2000 Pro/Pro The Legalization of Gambling The Tenth Amendment of the United States Constitution in the Bill of Rights respectfully states The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. (Gerald Murphy, Cleveland Free-Net). This Amendment states the individuals choice about how to spend ones money. There are a few reasonsRead MoreWhy Gambling Should Not Be Prohibited Or Policed By The Federal Government1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGambling In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world there are many different types of gambling such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sports and internet gambling. Popularity of this activity remains strong in America, however, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. I believe gambling is a fun social activity that should not be prohibited or policed by the federal government. It should be an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to choose if they gamble or not based on theirRead More Legalization Of Gambling Essay1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Legalization of Gambling nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Tenth Amendment of the United States Constitution in the Bill of Rights respectfully states Ã¢â¬Å"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the peopleÃ¢â¬ . (Gerald Murphy, Cleveland Free-Net). This Amendment states the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s choice about how to spend ones money. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;There are a few reasons that theRead MoreGambling Essay824 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGambling Gambling is defined as risking money or something of value on the outcome of an event involving chance when probability of winning or losing is less than certain.[i] Over the past ten years, Ontario has undergone a dramatic change in gambling attitudes. Since the legalization of gambling in Ontario in 1994, there has been an explosion of gambling opportunitiesRead MoreOnline Gambling And Its Effects On Society967 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescaused casino gambling to shift to online, Ã¢â¬Å"on-the-goÃ¢â¬ , gambling. Online gambling can be effortlessly accessible to anyone over the legal age as required by various jurisdictions. Margee Hume and Gillian Mort argue that youth misperceive the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"gamblingÃ¢â¬ , as they believe gambling is a hobby from which one can receive rewards such as money (119). As a result, those gambling for rewards, do not generally acknowledge the possible negative outcomes associated with gambling. Hume and MortRead MoreGambling Is Not Immoral Or Unethical1406 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGambling In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, there are many different ways to gamble such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sporting events, and the internet, just to name a few. Although the popularity of this activity remains strong in America, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. People strongly opposed to gambling would like to see it policed by the federal government or outlawed completely; they are wrong. There are several positive aspects of gamblingRead MoreSingapore National Council On Problem Gambling790 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBefore 2014 FIFA World Cup, Singapore National Council on Problem Gambling (NCPG) made an anti-gambling video. Ã¢â¬Å"In this video, some children were predicting the champion. The boy whose name is Andy hoped Germany won because his dad bet his saving on them.Ã¢â¬ After Germany won champion on July 14, NCPG posted a picture on its homepage. From the picture, AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s friend asked whether he got his sa vings back. However, Andy seemed unhappy:Ã¢â¬ No, dad never stopsÃ¢â¬ ¦ he wants to bet one more time.Ã¢â¬ Two lines ofRead MoreGambling Is Not Only A Fun And Social Activity1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGambling In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, there are many different ways to gamble such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sporting events and the internet just to name a few. Although the popularity of this activity remains strong in America, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. Those that are strongly opposed to gambling would like to see it policed by the federal government or outlawed completely; I do not agree. Gambling is not only a fun andRead MoreEssay on Casinos1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconsidered to be the home of casino gambling, is third only to Disneyworld and New York for tourism with 260 million visitors yearly. While it is true that casinos generate billions of dollars in revenues hardly any of that makes it back to the local economy as promised by the lobbyists to have casinos built in a city. Effects on local economies include construction jobs are created as well as hospitality jobs within the casino. While it is true jobs are created though usually they go to people outsideRead MoreCasinos Offer Many Things, To Different People. Most People1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestrip to a casino. There are a lot of jobs created by casinos. It can help someone be on track. Many people go to have fun, while for some people itÃ¢â¬â¢s a lifestyle. Despite the other problems like addiction, gambling is something that is very popular and it just continues to grow more and more, illegalizing this would cause problems and not end easily. The positive benefits of legal gambling far out weigh the disadvantages proposed by any naysayers. Gambling is something that will continue to grow and
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Comparison between Bowen Family System and Solution Focused Therapy Lennie Soo Mei Yoke Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors Comparison between Bowen Family System and Solution Focused Therapy This essay aims to compare and contrast the classical Bowen Family System Therapy to the more modern Solution Focused Therapy. Comparison will be made in the following areas (1) broad theoretical formulations, (2) normal family development, (3) development of behavioural disorder, (4) goals of therapy, (5) conditions for behavioural change, (6) assessment methods and (7) techniques. Note that in the last decade, parts of BowenÃ¢â¬â¢s theories have been criticized due to the paucity of empirical evidence. For example, hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In conceptualising the development of the family system, Bowenian therapists are past-focused. They believe that emotional fusion that is passed down from one generation to the next is the cause of psychological problems (Nichols, 2010, pp 119-122). Normal family development according to Solution Focused therapist produces families with flexible structures, clear boundaries and well-organised hierarchies. This is quite similar to BowenianÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of normal family development. Differentiated individuals after all need to have clear boundaries. Similarly, flexible structures and well-organised hierarchies do promote low anxiety and therefore generate positive emotional contact between family members. The difference is that instead of being past-focused, Solution Focused therapy assiduously avoids the past and focuses their clients as much as possible on the present and future. (Nichols, 2010, pp 321). Bowenian therapists believe that the development of behaviour disorder symptoms are the result of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to handle stress effectively. According to the Bowenians therapists, the ability to handle stress is correlated to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s level of differentiation. The more differentiated a person, the more resilient the person (Nichols, 2010, pp 120). The result of a study to determined the link between differentiation of self, social anxiety and physiological symptoms suggests that less differentiated individuals are moreShow MoreRelatedThe Bowenian Approach to Family Therapy Essay example2986 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesBowenian Approach to Family Therapy Summer D. Parrott Liberty University March 1, 2015 Abstract This paper will summarize the theory of family systems developed by Murray Bowen. It will describe the eight key components to Bowenian therapy and the techniques used during practice. Strengths and limitations will be exposed, followed by a summary of the importance of integration between psychology and family systems theory. Keywords: Bowen, integration, family systems theory Part I IntroductionRead MoreFamily Counseling Approach5020 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagesIssue of Choice: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Melissa Trask Liberty University May 12, 2010 Abstract Counseling has been in existence from the beginning of time. From Jethro to Freud, therapists and philosophers have been seeking insight into the core of human nature and cognitions. Cognitive-Behavioral therapy(CBT) recognizes that faulty cognitions and beliefs affect the behaviors of individuals. One method of cognitive-behavior therapy, reality therapy, incorporates the concepts of freeRead MoreContextual Factors8375 Words Ã |Ã 34 Pagesunexpressed needs for communication, and concern about being uncared by the busy health professionals, which affect their care for the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health outcomes. Conclusion. The Ã¯ ¬ ndings facilitate the development of family-centred care focuses on partnership of care between the nurse and family to enhance the Chinese familyÃ¢â¬â¢s active and participatory role. 1 Keywords: XXXX Ã © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 1 J A N Journal Name 1 2 0 4 2 Manuscript No. B Dispatch: 22.10.12Read MoreInnovators Dna84615 Words Ã |Ã 339 PagesProfessor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School and the architect of and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s foremost authority on disruptive innovation. Ã¢â¬Å"Businesses worldwide have been guided and in uenced by e InnovatorÃ¢â¬â¢s Dilemma and e InnovatorÃ¢â¬â¢s Solution. Now e InnovatorÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA shows where it all starts. is book gives you the fundamental building blocks for becoming more innovative and changing the world. One of the most important books to come out this year, and one that will remain pivotal readingRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words Ã |Ã 604 Pages3 HR TRANSITIONS HR Management Contributes to Organizational Success More effective management of human resources (HR) increasingly is being seen as positively affecting performance in organizations, both large and small. A joint venture between General Electric and a Japanese company, GE Fanuc is a manufacturer of factory automation and control products. Headquartered in Virginia with 1,500 employees, the HR department primarily performed administrative support activities. But when DonaldRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagespublishing as Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, p lease submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions DepartmentRead MoreMedicare Policy Analysis447966 Words Ã |Ã 1792 PagesCÃ¢â¬âPUBLIC HEALTH AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT TITLE IÃ¢â¬âCOMMUNITY HEALTH CENTERS TITLE IIÃ¢â¬âWORKFORCE Subtitle AÃ¢â¬âPrimary Care Workforce Subtitle BÃ¢â¬âNursing Workforce Subtitle CÃ¢â¬âPublic Health Workforce Subtitle DÃ¢â¬âAdapting Workforce to Evolving Health System Needs TITLE IIIÃ¢â¬âPREVENTION AND WELLNESS TITLE IVÃ¢â¬âQUALITY AND SURVEILLANCE TITLE VÃ¢â¬âOTHER PROVISIONS Subtitle AÃ¢â¬âDrug Discount for Rural and Other Hospitals; 340B Program Integrity Subtitle BÃ¢â¬âPrograms Subtitle CÃ¢â¬âFood and Drug Administration Subtitle
Friday, December 13, 2019
Should you use more reliable suppliers and how? What re the pros and cons ? Inventory cost higher or material cost will be affected ? Now Blush wants Ã¢â¬Å"shrinking service windows Ã¢â¬Å". How can you help In achieving this through a better procurement strategy ? SC Manager (SCM) Draw a complete and detailed supply chain diagram from suppliers of DEEP to delivery of material to AGAR. Try to identify from the diagram the practical way to improve your logistical performance and shorten the delivery time to meet GuardÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements. We will write a custom essay sample on Workshop or any similar topic only for you Order Now Discuss with other managers if they can support your suggestion. Manufacturing Manager (MM) As a manufacturing manager, you receive materials from outside suppliers and manufacturing starts under your supervision. You then deliver the finished items to warehouse before sending to AGAR. Can you suggest some process re-engineering or any Improvement that you can suggest to help meet the demand of Finish ? As the main contact with Finish, how can you propose to your CEO that DEEP needs major business operations improvement to meet the request of AGAR otherwise DEEP will lose this major customer that they cannot afford to see this happen. You need to ether information from your managers and provide several key points and write on a short proposal to present to the class. You need to identify the Ã¢â¬Å"quality criteriaÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"order winning criteriaÃ¢â¬ of DEEP to convince that AGAR should continue the partnership with DEEP. Time Frame of Workshop Time Activity Remark 6. 00 Ã¢â¬â 6. 30 Deep reading of the case Group discussion to clear some points described in the case 6. 30 Ã¢â¬â 7. 00 Each role considers the issues that they need to address and make recommendation SEEM is to collect information and provide advice if needed 7. 00 -7. 30 Thorough discussion of final report SEEM leads the team to finalize the recommendations report for later presentation 7. 30 Ã¢â¬â 7. 45 Short break 7. 45 Ã¢â¬â 9. 00 Presentation from the 10 groups Other groups critique the presentation with marks (from 1 to 9 marks) 9. 00 Ã¢â¬â 9. 15 Score counting The champion group will get 10% more mark in their case report assignment individually 9. 15 Ã¢â¬â 9. 45 General review of overall performance Grades for Groups Example : Group 1 will grade the other 9 groups to allocate the marks of 1 to 9 as shown below. The group with highest mark will be the champion. How to cite Workshop, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Quality of Environmental Disclosures Resources. Answer: Introduction The CBA (Commonwealth Bank of Australia) has diminished its share price from 1.5 percent to 76.60 (Sean, 2017) percent since shareholders were taking in the news that ARPA (Australian Prudential Regulatory Authority) banking regulator might glance at the company. ARPA is the body based on overseeing the superannuation, insurance and loan sectors of Australia. It has substantial authority and recently ordered banks to slow down their activities of providing loans to the property investors .Commonwealth bank and ARPA has declared that supervisor shall introduce a free panel in order to examine several issues which have concerns about the structure and exercises held in accountability, ethics and governance in commonwealth bank group, and have ruined the reputation of the bank and public standing. ARPA stated that bank is financially strong and capitalized. Further, the investigation is based on the internal financial workings of CBA. The objective of this damage is to determine any shortage and is inclusive of assessing if or of not the organizational framework of group, governance, accountability, financial goals and remuneration is contradictory against the compliance results and risk management. CBA has been a point of attraction because of its various scandals regarding the GFC. Recently, it faced money laundering claims, wealth and life insurance scandals. Nonetheless, ARPA announced that the panel would not make any decisions on issues which are present prior to the cited court. Further, the investigation will be general and assess aspects of conflicts of interest (in which the incentives overrule the best interest of consumers). CBA is bearing investigation costs, however they are not likely to be significant regarding the company. Finance experts who believe that CBA is a well-meant organization in its best interest to consumers. On the other hand, the involvement of banking operations with regulators is usually tame and typically engages a polite backwards and forward (Reddy and Wong, 2016). ARPA contains the authority to impose changes. However, weak company culture and authority can be complex to measure and hence, difficult to alter tangibly. Consequently, in accordance with the above discussion ARPA investigation is not significant however there is a rapid increase in regulatory risks at the leading banking companies. An Australian firm of law officially filed a class action lawsuit in opposition to CBA of Australia in lieu of shareholders on Monday, condemning it to fail to reveal the breached rules of anti-money laundering. The lawsuit filed by the firm (Maurice Blackburn) in opposition to the worlds largest lenders is pursued by the federal agency AUSTRAC, which laid blame on it of doing more than 53,000 breaches regarding the rules of anti-money laundering. That resulted in billions of dollars of penalty. The lawsuit, which had been formerly labelled by the law firm and lawsuit financier, stated that shareholders had confronted a considerable share fall on account of AUSTRACs accusations. Maurice Blackburn statement did not mention a number of compensations required. Further, the action provoked CBA shareholder to join from 2015 to 2016. Commonwealth Bank has not discussed that is practised hundreds of thousands of illegal transactions but claimed about the breaches, were mainly held because of software fault and dispute regarding the extent of responsibility. In the annual report, the bank stated that it planned in order to protect itself from the class action lawsuit. The stock of bank faced the loss of approximately 8.5%, as the AUSTRAC declared its lawsuit in opposition to the commonwealth bank. Shares of CBA took a rise by 0.5 percent on next day in line with the broader market (Commonwealth Bank of Australia. Share Price, 2017). Business investors usually gather the useful yet effective information by considering the environmental risks via direct interactions with the executives of company or surrogate engagement firms (Bell, Filatotchev and Aguilera, 2014). Nonetheless, the information is kept private and is not disclosed. Presently, a difficulty arises while considering the environmental commitments, lack of reliable reporting, avoiding inspection by widespread public and comparison amongst peers in the listed companies. For addressing this matter, the task force has been established regarding the climate financial disclosures by the Board of Financial Stability in order to plan the guiding principles for disclosures for managing them according to the climate risks. Universally known CDP3 studies numerous companies yearly, putting questions regarding the framework, action and governance on the environmental changed. Nevertheless, it is restricted by its reliance on the indented participation. During the 2016 assessment of companies internationally, the CDP got only 86 responses from the Australian corporate. Moreover, the reports of CDP at the gross level (nationally or globally), hence restricting the accessibility of information in relation to private corporations. ACSI which stands for Australian Council of Superannuation Investors considers the Australian corporate sustainable reporting practices on a yearly basis. Bollen and et al. assessed that (2015), neither the climate risk is taken into consideration nor the listed private company commitments are compared. In fact, the guide aims at companies to promote disclosure and to notify the expectations of institutional investors in the market. The development of specified companies in dealing with the climate risk offers a helpful strategy to consider the engagement financial activities of investors (Epstein and Buhovac, 2014). Australia has insufficient regulatory guidance and the collapse of institutional investors to wield their impact on corporate (Mgge and Stellinga, 2015). These investors are required to exhibit their engagement in managing carbon relating to their portfolios and must make use of Oxford Martin Principles. First is to adopt and reveal a structure and timeframe for timely engagement with the companies of fossil fuel. Then they are required to take disciplinary measures in opposition to companies that do not comply with the framework, for example, voting not in favour of remuneration reports. Next is to getting rid of those companies which are not able to do progress. It has been assessed that a few company assessed their Energy sector in order to reduce their emission in the long term. Moreover major of the companies do not make submissions to the CDP (Carbon Disclosure Project) and lack of progress. Specified the level by which Australians are bared to fossil fuel corporate by their funds of superannuation, the widespread public has the right to know the exposure of companies to environmental which are managing the same and assessing the actions of these funds to ensure the firms have invested in a diminishing climate changing risks. A stock market is a place where trading of stock is done. From the economic aspect, apart from acting on behalf of a resource of financial investment, the stock market also acts as a function for indicating a mechanism to executives about the decisions on investments as well as a mechanism for company governance. On the other hand, the stock market is well-known for its most useful channel for raising the capital of the company. Individuals are likely to trade in stocks because of its long-term capital and dividend growth and evade against the slow inflation and spending power (Coates IV, 2014). Another aspect that makes the stock market a key attraction is its liquidity. Most of the individuals make an investment in stocks because they are willing to become the owner of the company, by which they can get the benefit when the company makes payment of dividends, or there is an increase in the price of the stock. However, individuals purchase stock with the intention to take control ov er the business. On a regular basis, shareholders are required to have a specific degree of shares to the board for making better decisions and planning directional strategies for the business. The problem with the statement: in the traditional theory of finance, investors are alleged to be reasonable maximizes of finance, following the fundamental rules based on strategies of investment on the assessment of risk-return, since the factors are likely to impact the decisions on investment. Macve, (2014) asserted that the controversial area of this study has diversified finding provided by the analyst. For example, researchers asserted that expected profits, dividends and financial performance of firm are considered as crucial investments for private investors. Sadgrove (2016), determined six factors which are: dividends, speedy growth, an investment meant for the purpose of saving, rapid profits by buying and selling, specialized investment management and continuing growth influencing private investors regarding their investment decisions. Researchers have suggested that investors are required to carefully examine the factors and applying the best of business knowledge while investing on investment. Investors must have potential to understand the economic and industrial signs, as they impact the performance of market share. Hence, they must assess each variable in the climate rather than just assessing single variable. In addition to this, investors must branch out their investments into diversified companies via developing investment portfolio in order to eliminate risk and maximize profits. Many theories related to stakeholders have developed over time identifying and explaining the nature of the interaction between the firm and the stakeholders. Wennersten, Sun and Li, (2015), specifies that the Stakeholder Theory initiated by Freeman was intended to provide an understanding of the unification of various categories of stakeholders. Freeman recognized that any category of stakeholder theory is not complete without the other. Sullivan (2017) , stated that a number of researchers had recognized the need for the unwritten Social Contract which reflects the managerial and normative decision-making related to stakeholder theory that may aid in the analysis of the interaction between firm-stakeholder. The social contract is an implied contract between a company and the related stakeholders. In the twentieth century, moral responsibilities of a company regained philosophical momentum in the form of social contract theory. The social contract of a gas company offers a more inclusive viewpoint on corporate social disclosure by clearly recognizing that all the companies are bound by the social contract; according to which they agree to carry out various activities that are socially desired by the society in return for approving their objectives, which guaranty their successful sustained existence. In this case, the export of gas which may not leave any scope of local consumption may be against the contract. Corpor ate social responsibility involves reporting of the social and environmental variable of the company. The concept was first introduced by MNCs, to recognize their responsibility towards environment and society (Fullan, 2014). Social and Economic Consequences of Accounting Social Contract Recently, many theorists have different perspectives and criticisms of the social contract. In particular, they have argued that the social contract is an incomplete picture of the moral lives. The motivations that could potentially influence managements interaction with stakeholders are offered by these theories that reflect into in the managements decision regarding information to be reported about the activities of the firm activities. The two important economic consequences of social contract are The resources spent on reporting of such kind which is other than the economic goals are a waste of resources because many of the times they are contradictory to a firm's economic and financial goals (Geneva Association, 2014). On the other hand, the proponents of social contract encourage this ides by emphasizing that the reporting of the social contract comes along with certain other social benefits that may outweigh the economic costs associated with its reporting. Thus, engaging in social and environmental responsibility is necessary for business, for the sake of its long-term existence and a better goodwill in the society (Abbott, 2014). The social contract reflects the view that companys moral or regulatory obligations are dependent upon a social contract or agreement executed by them among the society in which they operate. However, the social contract is in the form of a theory which is associated with the contemporary moral and political theory. The social responsibility and economic goal of the company must go simultaneously with each other for better results. The managers in a gas Company could justify the expenses of the social contract to the shareholders not only due to the moral quality of the companys operation but also with reference to the economic benefits achieved by the business in the long run. Similarly, investors will not be concerned about the trade-off between maximum ROI on the one hand, and on the other, the ethical considerations of the company they invest in (Rickards, Wiseman and Kashima, 2014). Wright and Nyberg, (2015) asserted that a financial reporting system that is supported by high-quality standards, strong governance and resonance regulatory frameworks are a key to the growth of any company. Indeed, financial reporting based on high-quality standards of accounting, auditing and ethics strengthen investor trust placed in financial and nonfinancial information. Thus consistent financial reporting standards play a fundamental role in contributing to economic growth and financial stability of any company. As globalization occurs in more and more countries to open their avenues of foreign investment and to expand their business beyond geographical borders, both the public and private sectors have increasingly recognized the benefits of having a financial reporting framework that is commonly understood and supported by strong globally accepted standards (Seto and et.al, 2016). There are many advantages to such reporting frameworks like greater comparability of financial in formation, the greater readiness of investors to invest beyond borders; more efficient method of allocating resources on the basis of international benchmarks. However, achieving an international convergence like this requires more than theoretical support. It requires reaching a consensus as to what international standards should be used which serves as the base for global financial reporting and auditing and also to determine the ways in which the adoption of these standards can be facilitated. The major challenge in this regard is- Understanding the connotation of International Convergence. Conversion of the local standard into international Standards. Complexity in the structure of International Standards (Allen, 2015) Frequency and volume of changes in the International Standards. Potential Knowledge Shortfall. All these major problems have led to an inconsistent IRFS system which has undermined all the benefits associated with a common reporting. The translation of the international standards is a major challenge faced by many countries which leads to inappropriate adoption and implementation of the standards (Siddique, 2015). There are also huge discrepancies in the meaning of adoption. There is no single definition of adoption of standards. The participants of the IFRS are of the viewpoint that the international standards have become longer and much more complex and rules-based. This complex structure of the standards is adversely affecting their adoption and implementation (Aboutorabifard, 2016). Thus for the purpose of promoting consistent reporting framework globally, it is recommended that the setter of international standard become more attuned to the challenges in adopting and implementing the international standards. In particular, the setters must develop standards that are principles-based and not complex, and a flexible structure which lends itself to incorporation and implementation. Positive Accounting Theory (PAT) Positive Accounting Theory is an effort in making better estimations of the real world events and interprets them to accounting transactions. El-Masry and Kamal (2013), asserted this theory is in contrast with the normative theory that only suggests what should be done; the positive theory is based upon explanation and prediction of events. The positive theory covers areas such as which accounting policy will the firm choosegiven the problem and variables. It also measures firms reaction to the newly proposed accounting standards. The overall purpose of this theory is to recognize and predict the choice of accounting policies available with firms (Iatridis and Schroeder, 2016). It also recognizes the economic consequences which exist in relation to every accounting policy. With the help of PAT, firms maximize their survival prospects, so they can organize themselves proficiently. In relation to PAT, the firms aim at minimizing their contract costs like negotiation, renegotiation, and monitoring. The firm tends to choose the accounting policies that are best suited to their needs. PAT recognizes the changing situation that requires managers to apply a flexible approach in choosing accounting policies (Dodge and Akbari, 2017). This highlights the problem of opportunistic behaviour. This happens when the management actions are in their own personal interests. Thus, positive accounting theory reflects the best set of accounting policies which are an optimal compromise between minimizing contract costs and providing flexibility. Another relevant accounting theory is Normative accounting theory which provides guidance relating to the manner of selecting the most appropriate accounting procedure and prescribe what should be done (Elijido-Ten and Tjan, 2014). As per normative theory the ratio of debt to total tangible assets should be below the specified limit, and in case the quantum of debt exceeds either the assets inflates or liabilities decrease. In case contractual safeguards are not provided then it is assumed that the holders of debt will have to pay the higher cost of interest for compensating towards higher risk. Thus, this theory assists in ascertaining the appropriate procedure in order to reduce the amount of risk and loss relating to debt component. A distinguishing feature has been assessed by the authors to assess the manner in which political and legal setting influences the shape of regulatory space relating to the development of the standard. Jacobsen, (2013) stated that the reason behind the same is that role of political factors in standard-setting is most sophisticated. The influence of political factors on setting standard can be said as an objected intervention in the standard-development process by an economic entity with the aim of influencing the outcome of the procedure in order to enhance the entity economic value, eliminate accounting alternative in order to decrease the impact of additional flexibility provided through same. Conceptual framework provides assistance to AASB for developing and evaluating the accounting standard (Klettner, Clarke and Boersma, 2014). AASB is responsible for the development of Australian Accounting Standard, and the same is necessarily required to be applied by entities in the preparation of financial reports. The conceptual framework can be specified as a practical tool with an assist in developing consistent accounting policies in the case when no accounting standard applies to particular transaction or event (Bodie, 2013). Even assistance is provided in the case when a standard allows a choice of accounting policy and also in interpreting the standard. Thus, it can be concluded that conceptual framework helps in developing and modification of standard as they assist in interpreting the same in an appropriate manner. Through same, the need for modification or necessity of new accounting standard is ascertained, and the manner in which same should be applied is also ascertai ned. The main objective of the conceptual framework is to enhance the financial reporting for providing a clearer and update set of concepts. References Abbott, K.W., 2014. Strengthening the transnational regime complex for climate change.Transnational Environmental Law,3(1), pp.57-88. Aboutorabifard, H., 2016.Equator Principles and Climate Change Issues: Examining the EPs Climate Change Policies and Analyzing the Likely Effectiveness of these Policies(Master's thesis, University of Waterloo). Allen, M., 2015.Strategic communication for sustainable organizations: Theory and practice. Springer. Bell, R.G., Filatotchev, I. and Aguilera, R.V., 2014. Corporate governance and investors' perceptions of foreign IPO value: An institutional perspective.Academy of Management Journal,57(1), pp.301-320. Bodie, Z., 2013.Investments. McGraw-Hill. Bollen, B., Skully, M., Tripe, D. and Wei, X., 2015. The global financial crisis and its impact on Australian bank risk.International Review of Finance,15(1), pp.89-111. Coates IV, J.C., 2014. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Financial Regulation: C Dodge, T.A. and Akbari, B.M., 2017. Fossil Fuel Asset Risk Analysis: Clark University Endowment. Elijido-Ten, E.O. and Tjan, Y., 2014. Sustainability Balanced Scorecard Disclosures and Corporate Commitment to Sustainability: An Australian Study.Issues In Social And Environmental Accounting,8(4), pp.185-208. El-Masry, A. and Kamal, N., 2013. Company Directors and CSR.Encyclopedia of Corporate Social Responsibility, pp.415-421. Epstein, M.J. and Buhovac, A.R., 2014.Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental, and economic impacts. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Fullan, M., 2014.Leading in a culture of change personal action guide and workbook. John Wiley Sons. Geneva Association, 2014. The Insurance Industry and Climate change-Contribution to the global debate.The Geneva Reports,2(1), pp.1-152. Iatridis, K. and Schroeder, D., 2016. Responsible Research and Innovation in Industry.Springer. Jacobsen, B., 2013. Institutional investor support for climate change resolutions: a new challenge to capitalism or co-opted activism?. InInstitutional Investors Power to Change Corporate Behavior: International Perspectives(pp. 279-308). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Klettner, A., Clarke, T. and Boersma, M., 2014. The governance of corporate sustainability: Empirical insights into the development, leadership and implementation of responsible business strategy.Journal of Business Ethics,122(1), pp.145-165. Macve, R., 2014. What should be the nature and role of a revised Conceptual Framework for International Accounting Standards?.China Journal of Accounting Studies,2(2), pp.77-95. Mgge, D. and Stellinga, B., 2015. The unstable core of global finance: Contingent valuation and governance of international accounting standards.Regulation Governance,9(1), pp.47-62. Reddy, W. and Wong, W., 2016. Australian interest rate movements and A-REITs performance: A sectoral analysis. InAsRES 21st International Conference(pp. 1-11). Asian Real Estate Society. Rickards, L., Wiseman, J. and Kashima, Y., 2014. Barriers to effective climate change mitigation: the case of senior government and business decision makers.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change,5(6), pp.753-773. Sadgrove, K., 2016.The complete guide to business risk management. Routledge. Seto, K.C., Davis, S.J., Mitchell, R.B., Stokes, E.C., Unruh, G. and rge-Vorsatz, D., 2016. Carbon lock-in: Types, causes, and policy implications.Annual Review of Environment and Resources,41, pp.425-452. Siddique, S.P., 2015.Analysis of the quality of environmental disclosures made by Australian resources sector companies(Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University). Sullivan, R., 2017.Corporate responses to climate change: Achieving emissions reductions through regulation, self-regulation and economic incentives. Routledge. Wennersten, R., Sun, Q. and Li, H., 2015. The future potential for Carbon Capture and Storage in climate change mitigationan overview from perspectives of technology, economy and risk.Journal of Cleaner Production,103, pp.724-736. Wright, C. and Nyberg, D., 2015.Climate Change, Capitalism, and Corporations. Cambridge University Press. Online Commonwealth Bank of Australia. 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Thursday, November 28, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å" Amistad Ã¢â¬Å" Reaction The movie Amistad was a great movie. while watching this movie in class, the begining of the movie was kind of intense , but then throughtout the next scenes it was kind of boring. The movie made it seem like it was a few white people and blacks against everyone else when that actually was not the case. One thing that should have been included in this three hour movie is the favor that the public of the north had for the Africans. Also, there definitely shouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been a lot more racism included to show you how black people were viewed and treated as back in those times. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just the triumph of the defense, but more of a monumental win for slaves everywhere in a way that would have you skeptical for more. In this movie we hear many different stories as each character tries to explain why his view is the right one. We will write a custom essay sample on Amistad Reflection Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the first courtroom scene we hear several different stories about what should happen to the Africans. All of those stories assume that the Africans are property; the only question is whose property they are. Interestingly, as property, they can not be charged with murder or theft. One cannot be both property and capable of forming criminal intent. The only issue before the court is where the Africans will go. This movie takes on the basis of two core themes, suffering and survival. The way in which these two are represented can label the film as unique. The opening scenes of the enslaved Africans overrunning the Amistad, killing its crew and taking over sets the tone of the movie , and the people watching it is never allowed to forget the image of the African screaming as he thrusts his sword into one of his former captors. The enslaved Africans are not represented as supplicants: they have fought for their freedom. These scenes are coupled with representations of the Middle Passage which are often considered to be the most powerful aspect of the film. This distinctive approach to the movie that represents the Atlantic slave trade is also evident in the portrayal of African culture and identity. Sengbe, the lead member of the enslaved Africans, is shown as strong, knowledgeable and surprisingly intelligent. Rather than turn the story of the Amistad into a celebration of the kindness and generosity of white abolitionists, Sengbe is shown to be the instigator and cause of the freedom which is eventually granted to the enslaved Africans. This was my very first time watching a movie with the storyline like this and after watching and understanding the key points of this movie , i would highly recommend others to watch it.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Nylon Stockings and Denier Spam Nylon Stockings and Denier Spam Nylon Stockings and Denier Spam By Maeve Maddox Puzzled by a spate of strange comments being posted on my teaching blog lately, I looked to Google search for an explanation. The comments range from vacuous puffs written in a strange kind of English, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles or blog posts on this kind of area. Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this site. Reading this info So i am happy to convey that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve an incredibly good uncanny feeling I discovered just what I needed. I most certainly will make certain to donÃ¢â¬â¢t forget this website and give it a glance regularly. to utter gibberish: l watches, and he led free on some chair asks umbrella that he knocked well longer flat as his credit. By on it had tightly see with it appeared smaller jerry of ourselves! His samay or watches. Polar felt accountable heart, at monitor came the better around the watches or jake matter. Weight wouldve that he safely. I nodded crossing then silvery, which grotesquely had then of the organic hour. In searching the web, I hoped to find out what benefit anyone could derive from posting this kind of drivel in a comment section. I never did discover a satisfactory explanation, but I have learned a new expression: denier spam. As I grew up in an age when nylon stockings were a staple of every womans wardrobe, the only association the word denier had for me was: denier: a unit of fineness for silk, rayon, or nylon yarn equal to the fineness of a yarn weighing 0.05 gram for each 450 meters of length or one gram for each 9000 meters b : the fineness of a silk, rayon, or nylon yarn or fabric. Could denier spam be an especially fine variety of spam? I kept looking until the penny finally dropped. The word I was seeing wasnt denier [dÃâ¢n-yÃ ], as in 20-denier nylon, it was denier [dÃ -nÃ «Ãâ¢r], as in one who denies. Doh! Apparently denier spam is the sort that comes from one-issue readers who use a blogs comment section to soapbox lengthy denials of global warming, the geological age of the earth, the perils of permitting people to carry concealed weapons, etc. Its a relief to have learned the correct pronunciation and meaning of denier spam, but Im still at a loss to understand the purpose of what Ive come to call empty puff spam and gibberish spam. Whats the benefit to those who place it? Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:5 Uses of Infinitives"Replacement for" and "replacement of"Starting a Business Letter with Dear Mr.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Financial management - Essay Example Following are some techniques that are used in investment appraisal of the project. The basic advantage of this technique is that ROCE is much simpler than other methods and can links with other accounts easily. But seeing as both side of coin ROCE also have some disadvantages like ROCE is not an absolute measure of the project life and timing of cash flow is not considered in this method. Net Present value (NPV): NPV simply means that what is the value of future flows in current terms. It is considered to be a superior to most of other methods. It consider the time value of money and an absolute measure of return but it also have some disadvantages like it is difficult to calculate and difficult to explain to managers. Internal rate of return (IRR): IRR represent the discount rate at which NPV of an investment is Zero. It represents the breakeven cost of capital. As other techniques IRR has also some advantages like it consider the time value of money and use cash flows rather than profits. The main benefit of the IRR is that it is in percentage therefore easily understood by the managers. But as other methods IRR has also some disadvantages like it is not absolute measure of probability and also complicated to calculate. The cost of capital is the rate of return that the enterprise must pay to satisfy the providers of funds, and if reflect the riskiness of providing funds. Valuation of cost of capital is depend upon is based upon these certain
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
London Olympics 2012 - China Diving Team Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words
London Olympics 2012 - China Diving Team - Essay Example It is worth mentioning that London was the first country to have hosted the modern Olympic Games event three times having previously done in 1908 and 1948. With the growing competition amid different nations at the global level, strategies are also being made to excel in field of education and sports. China as a leading global sporting nation is considered to be the most populated country, which has over the past two decades established a successful niche for itself in the Games. The subsequent results that are evidently showing in Olympic Games from Chinese participants especially diving team has been propagated by significant contributions from the government which is taking adequate steps to develop and convert the inherent skills of the sports persons to successful results and medals through a precise focus on team development. In this regard, it is observed that Ã¢â¬ËTeam Success/Failure ModelÃ¢â¬â¢ is a crucial determinant and continuum to ascertain to inherent perspectives related to a teamÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and team members characteristics. The China diving team has been able to create history in the Olympic Games in the year 2012. The diving competitions in the Olympic Games (London) took place at the Aquatics Centre. It was one of the most attractive aquatic sports that took place at the games. Apart from diving, China also took part in other aquatic sports that comprised synchronized swimming, water polo and swimming. However, the China diving team was able to become the most successful country that topped the medal table with six gold, one bronze and three silver in total (BBC, Ã¢â¬Å"Medals in DivingÃ¢â¬ ). THESIS STATEMENT The main objective of this study is to analyze the different facets associated with Chinese Olympic diving team which participated in 2012 summer Olympic Games with a special focus on synchronized diving. The study will be evaluated based on Ã¢â¬ËTeam Success/Failure ModelÃ¢â¬â¢, which will enable to determine the key constituents of success achieved by the Chinese diving team. TEAM GOAL OR TASK Diving is considered to be a sport that primarily involves leaping or dropping into water from a raised area or launch pad on occasion while executing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally recognized sport since it acceptance in the Olympic Games in 2000. Although it is viewed that countries such as the United States ruled worldwide competitive diving events in the twentieth century however the sport is being accepted by many countries after it gained international recognition from IOC in the year 2000. China is observed to be one of the leading sporting nations, which has excelled in the sport of diving. The sport was accepted by the people when it was transfigured by national coach Liang Boxi (International Olympic Committee 1-9). Other noted counties that are adapting significant amount of strategies to uplift the sport include Russia, Great Britain, Italy and Australia among others. China is consi dered to be among the most revered participating nations in diving in the Olympic Games since the early 1980s. China won its first Olympic medal in diving in the 1984 Los Angeles Games. Again, in the year 1988, the nation gained two out of four gold medals in the diving category in Seoul which continued to grow as it was able to gain five gold medals from Sydney and six in Athens. Chinese divers quickly became accustomed to victory having
Monday, November 18, 2019
M5A2 - Leadership and Ethics - Essay Example Additionally, ClarkeÃ¢â¬â¢s roles throughout his career reflect that he had a strong tendency for management rather than as a technical person. Clarke shifted from commercial and marketing positions to the head of stores which had little relevance to his previous positions. Similarly, he later moved from Supply Chain Director to IT Director. Both positions have little in common so it could be surmised that Clarke is more of a manager than a technical person who would be restricted to one field of expertise in TESCO. Moreover, it must also be related that Clarke has been moved around the world when TESCO required solutions to grave problems so Clarke can be seen as an adept manager, especially under pressure. ClarkeÃ¢â¬â¢s role as a leader is confirmed most after talking to his subordinates. All of the people interviewed, at TESCO, viewed Clarke as an able leader such that they looked up to his example. Moreover, Clarke can be seen as a direction setter for TESCO given that TESCO has switched gears after Clarke took over as Group Chief Executive. 2. Describe the ethical model or framework used by the person to make ethical decisionsÃ¢â¬âinclude the positives and negatives of your chosen leader's ethical model. Clarke can be seen as using a managerial grid leadership model for taking ethical decisions. The use of the managerial grid leadership model is augmented by the situational theory of leadership where the leader evaluates a situation in order to provide the decision (McKee & Carlson, 1999). The managerial grid model provides for two major constraints that the leader must consider Ã¢â¬â labour satisfaction and productivity. In addition to these major constraints, the leader may also be considering other smaller constraints such as public image, accountability, legal implications etc. The leader utilising the managerial grid model for ethical decision making tends to evaluate the provided situation in terms of the constraints in the situation (Griff in & Ebert, 2010). The primary aim of the leader is to optimise all available constraints in respect to each other such that no singular constraint overrides any other constraint. It must be kept in mind that labour satisfaction and productivity will operate as primary constraints while other constraints play secondary and tertiary roles only. This particular model of ethical decision making is restricted to Philip Clarke, Group Chief Executive for TESCO only since other managerial grid leadership models would have personalised primary, secondary and tertiary constraints being considered. The managerial grid leadership model for ethical decision making has the distinct advantage of optimising organisational aims and objectives achievement. This takes place as the ethical decision making process optimises inputs for Theory Y under which labour satisfaction is maximised in order to maximise productivity (Griffin & Ebert, 2010). Essentially, as labour satisfaction increases, the achiev ement of organisational aims and objectives becomes easier and simpler but it remains to be seen what direction organisational aims and objectives lie in. Given the nature of economic enterprises, it is common to find productivity at the top of the organisational aims and objectives list but other secondary and tertiary factors may also be available such as safety, ethical practices, corporate social responsibility etc. (Ray,
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Background On Corporate Social Responsibility Management Essay This study will argue against the neoclassical view of Milton Friedman on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). First of all it is essential to familiarise with the concept of CSR, this includes background information on the topic, than discuss the transformation of CSR over the years and the reasons for the changes. Than defining the concept as it is seen now. Additionally to familiarise with the literature used, two sources used in this study were evaluated under origins, values and limitations. Later the study will introduce the main argument of the study on the CSR, which will be separated into two parts. First part will analyse the traditional view of Milton Friedman and other economists and try to find out if the main responsibility of the company is to maximize profits. The second part will talk about the traditional view of the CSR which is opposing the neoclassical view. In conclusion I will try to argue Milton Friedmans case of neoliberal position on CSR. Background on Corporate Social Responsibility The concept of social responsibility was traced back to the ancient times. The first stage of the CSR development happened thousand years BC where authorities introduced different rules and regulations where the workers were severely punished for being careless and injured someone during their work. Or In Ancient Rome senators grumbled about the failure of businesses to contribute sufficient taxes to fund their military campaigns.(History of Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability) During the industrial revolution the concept grew to a whole new level and the significance of business in society started to increase exponentially. By the 1920s the new stage began that social responsibility was not seen as an ethic but became a whole new concept, however the magnitude of the concept was undervalued. As Dean of Harvard Business School Wallace B. Donham: Business has not learned how to handle these changes, nor does it recognise the magnitude of its responsibilities for the fut ure of civilisation.(History of Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability) The ideology of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has emerged as a response to pressure from the business side of growing leftist sentiment and the trade union movement in the last third of the XIX century. Incurred if the institutions of civil society demanded from businesses providing social guarantees to the workers and to ensure protection of their labour and the decline of trade unions in the mid XX century for business owners updated the task of preserving and maintaining the loyalty of motivation of subordinates, which again forced them to turn to CSR. It was then that the concept has become firmly established in the theory and practice of corporate governance in the U.S. However the effect of globalization cannot be under estimated as it played a significant role in CSR, which forced companies to look for more creative ways of positioning information in a crowded world. Thus, CSR was the result of deep transformation of relations of private business and society in a post-industrial economy. Definition Searching for the most precise definition in the least amount of text, the definition by Lord Holme and Richard Watts in The World Business Council for Sustainable Development in its publication Making Good Business Sense (Baker 2004) they defined Corporate Social Responsibility as: the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large (Baker 2004) In essence CSR is a concept that reflects the companys voluntary decision to participate in the improvement. An important remark to make before defining CSR is that it is a very broad topic with no clear-cut definition; this creates a lot of uncertainty. In order to reduce some uncertainty it is essential to divide CSR into two different parts and look at it in a more detailed manner. First part that will be looked at is the internal CSR, which is limited by the scope of the company, it deals with social policies of the employees. The second part is the external CSR, which is responsible for the outside framework and therefore deals with a much broader spectrum than the internal, as it takes into the account all the social and environmental factors, in some cases it helps eliminate the failures of the authorities in the social sphere, shifting a significant share of burden to the corporations. Additionally there are different principles of the CSR that will be mentioned later in the study including: Transparency this deals with publicity and the reliability of the company, significance deals with the scale and the effectiveness of the policies and prevention of conflicts among other parties. Evaluation of Sources In order to examine the two sides in more depth sources with different views and opinions were used. For a more critical evaluation two books have different perspectives on the case of CSR which helps the study answer the question from different viewpoints. First book, The Debate over Corporate Social Responsibility, by Steve May, George Cheney, and Juliet Roper answers the question in a theoretical and practical perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility. The books value lies in the fact that this book is based primary on facts and is independent from views, which is perfect for this study. Another important aspect to mention is the relevance of the book to the current situation in business as it was published 5 years ago which is relatively recent. The Second book Corporate Responsibility and Financial Performance: The Paradox of Social CostÃ by Moses L. Pava and Joshua Krausz. This book is very different from the first one as it focuses more on the performance of the company based on CSR. It contains empirical studies on the correlation between the CSR and performance that will be used further in the study. The limitation of this book is that it was published in the 1995 and the concept of CSR changed since then. Introduction Currently the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility is a subject of debate and criticism. Defenders argue that it has a solid business case, and corporations receive many benefits because they work for a broader and more long-term than their own short-term gain momentary. Critics argue that social responsibility moves away from the fundamental economic role of businesses, and distracts the company form its main goal. Thus, there are two main approaches to the study of corporate social responsibility. On one hand we have the notion of M. Friedman, who relies on formal rationality. On the other hand, we have representatives of the second approach, the liber idea of CSR. The researchers are relying on objective research. They recognize that the social responsibility of business is complex and cannot be reduced to the bare economic interest of profit maximization. In analysing both views this study will find out to what extend does Milton Friedmans traditional view of the CSR increase financial profits of the company. Before we elaborate on these two opposite approaches to the study of corporate responsibility, it should be noted that the leaders and managers of todays companies are increasingly aware of the positive impact of socially responsible behaviour to achieve not only strategic but also financial goals of the business. Milton Friedmans view on Responsibility of Corporations Nobel Prize winner, a supporter of the policy of monetarist Milton Friedman in his book Capitalism and Freedom published in 1962 there is one and only one social responsibility of business-to use it resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud.. Similarly,Ã the social responsibility ofÃ laborÃ leadersÃ isÃ toÃ serveÃ theÃ interestsÃ ofÃ theÃ membersÃ ofÃ theirunions.Ã ItÃ isÃ the social responsibilityÃ ofÃ theÃ restÃ ofÃ usÃ toÃ establishÃ aÃ frameworkÃ ofÃ lawÃ such thatÃ anÃ individualÃ inÃ pursuingÃ hisÃ ownÃ interestÃ is,Ã toÃ quoteÃ AdamÃ SmithÃ again,Ã ledÃ by anÃ invisibleÃ handÃ toÃ promoteÃ anÃ endÃ whichÃ wasÃ noÃ partÃ ofÃ hisÃ intention (Friedman Friedman, 1982, p. 133) The essence of this argument is that the direction of the profits for social goals reduces the volume of profit, which violates the principle of profit maximization, which is fundamental to the business. Note that in the short term deductions from profits related realization of a social responsibility goal in business does reduce profits. Additionally if, for example the price of a companys products would be reduced, this would really cheer the consumers who can buy more for lower price thus increase purchasing power; it will have the same effect on the shareholders if the value of dividends grow. Therefore, installation of additional environmental equipment, of course, is a positive impact on the environment and the society; however who will have to pay for this? Eventually, the consumers as the improvements will increase the cost of production and consequently, the prices of goods and services, reducing the purchasing power of the consumer. Milton Friedman backed his arguments with a number of arguments. For example he used the concept of comparative advantage in order to argument the fact that social programs should not be implemented by the managers as they do not have the comparative advantage and the know-how in that field, instead they should be engaged in maximizing profits for the company. Friedmans argument was based on one of the most influential classical economists David Richardo who argued that the flow of goods should not be interrupted by the government and should flow freely across the country and the boarders and therefore will be most efficient. In the book by Friedman makes a strong argument stating that corporate responsibility was initialised by leftists and socialists and any sign in directing the business in socially responsible direction will be seen as destruction of capitalism because evidently: theÃ managerÃ whoÃ reducesÃ profitÃ forÃ social ends such as reducing pollution orÃ hiringÃ membersÃ ofÃ disadvantagedÃ groupsÃ takesÃ overÃ the functions of government becauseÃ heÃ isÃ inÃ effectÃ imposingÃ taxesÃ andÃ decidingÃ howÃ toÃ spend the proceeds. TheÃ corporateÃ executiveÃ thusÃ becomesÃ aÃ civilÃ servant,Ã aÃ publicÃ employee.Ã The resultÃ isÃ thusÃ full blown socialism, the rejection of the market mechanisms in favorÃ ofÃ political mechanism (Aune, 2007, p. 212) Moreover Friedmans financial statement analyst criteria characterises companies investments in the social field as inferior investments (Aune, 2007, p. 212) due to that Friedman increased his influence in the 1975, after the decline of support in Keynesian economics and increase in Milton Friedmans monetarist movement in the field of inflation and unemployment. This improved his position in the battle against CSR. And increased support from other economists including Henderson who backed Friedman on his arguments against CSR and based on his principles wanted to implement Friedmans idea to the new globalized economy. In addition many organizations were created in order to oppose the traditional idea of CSR. Here are some examples of the organizations mentioned above: Competitive Enterprise Institute or the Free Enterprise Action Fund. These organizations based on Friedmans arguments try to prove that CSR is a smokescreen for socialists and collectivist theme. (Aune, 2007, p. 208) which was a very strong argument after the Cold War bringing up the idea of Soviet Collectivisation policies. As mentioned before, Friedman was not the only advocate of the neoliberal view on CSR. Also people like J. Roberts argue that the corporation is an idea, an imaginary, without substance or sensibility and therefore incapable of anything like responsibility. Instead, corporate responsibility will always depend upon people using their frail and vital sentience and following the path that this assigns. (Christensen, 2007, p. 449) Or Greider states that business should be making money otherwise they will be less efficient if they will engage in CSR and take societys interest into consideration. Not only because of the opportunity cost of investing that money into something more profitable but also because they are no specialized in the area and therefore will waste the resources due to inefficiency. Furthermore presents Hawleys study in 1991 where he conducted a survey from 22 business textbooks to find out what is goal of the corporation his finds came to a common conclusion that TheÃ typicalÃ IntroductoryÃ CorporateÃ FinanceÃ courseÃ beginsÃ withÃ theÃ instructorposingÃ theÃ followingÃ questionÃ toÃ theÃ students:Ã WhatÃ isÃ theÃ primaryÃ objectiveofÃ financialÃ managersÃ andÃ theÃ corporation?Ã TheÃ answer,Ã ofÃ course,Ã is that corporate managers should seekÃ toÃ maximizeÃ theÃ wealthÃ ofÃ ownersÃ by maximizing the price of the shares. That any government or corporate interference with the natural workings of the market prevents resources from flowing to their most valued uses. GovernmentÃ intervention, beyond punishing fraud, introduces unnecessary frictionÃ intoÃ theÃ naturalÃ andÃ smooth workingsÃ ofÃ theÃ market. (Pava Krausz, 1995, p. 17) In summary the first part of the study presents the main arguments of the neoclassical view on the Corporate Social Responsibility and on how the corporations should operate in order to be prosperous. First of all Milton Friedman argued that the only thing that should be of concern to the corporation and its managers are the profits. His arguments were based on the fact that the managers were hired by the shareholders to maximize profits and not to take over governments role and act like civil servants. In essence everyone has their own role in the society and everyone should do their role as best as possible as they are most efficient in doing that role and when someone from society tries to do the role that they are not designed to do than the denial of capital market mechanism occurs and what Friedman refers to this as is leftism and socialism. Further in the essay in order to validate the arguments presented by Friedman, other economists like J. Richards argued his notion on corp orations as being an idea and therefore not able to have responsibilities. Moreover Greiders and Hawleys counter CSR arguments were included in order to show the full scope of arguments against CSR. Limitations of Milton Friedmans Arguments There are many critics of the neoclassical view on CSR and Friedmans arguments. Number one is that Friedmans arguments are very subjective and are based on assumptions without any scientific facts or evidence that back his argumentation. This is a big disadvantage for his side as the lack of information and evidence that would act like a backbone and strengthen his position acts against him. As a result questions like does CSR really reduce the performance of the corporation? arise. Moreover, according to Friedman if corporations with money do not invest into the improvement of society and its employees, than who will? The main disagreement here between the two sides is that Friedman refuses to admit the fact that the economy, society, environment and the government are all interlinked between each other especially in the globalised economy, and you cannot view economy on its own without considering the other 3 factors. Friedman and many other economists tend to use of various economic theoretical models in order to illustrate their theories, however the models that apply to the economy usually do not apply to the real world as they tend to ignore many other factors like the government. In consequence he sees economy isolated from the society. Friedman stated that the corporation is doing well as long as they are conducting their business legally and are operating at profit maximizing level. The author in the book makes a very strong argument against Friedmans position as he states that his account on CSR in 1970 does not take the changing preferences of consumers and shareholders into account. What if the company is operating legally and maximizing profits indirectly with an enemy state during wartime? For example number of biggest U.S. Companies traded with Iran, North Korea, Sudan and Libya, due to the sanctions set by the Government they exported the goods to Dubai that were further re-exported the goods to Iran, North Korea, Sudan and Libya. (Aune, 2007, p. 215) Michael Scherer conducted a research on a number of US companies, he found out that for example: That the Canadian GE works on four new hydroelectric power generators at the Kurun River dam that will benefit the Iranian oil sector. Additionally they provide the Iranian oil sector with the latest equipment including pipelines, compressors and turbines. However the trade is not done directly, as they have an Italian company called Nuovo Pignone that acts like a middle man. Or another example: one of the largest oilfield companies Halliburtons subsidy helped building in one of the largest fertilizer plants near Iraq. They also provide Iranian National Oil Co. with $226 million drilling equipment, the CEO of Halliburton Richard Cheney also stated that U.S. the sanctions against Iran and Libya hurt business and failed to stop terrorism. There are number of other examples of the worlds largest companies including ConocoPhillips or ExxonMobil that at the end of the day trade with the Axis o f Evil (Aune, 2007, p. 215) According to Friedman and his idea of corporate capitalism as it should be all the companies that were listed above in the example are doing nothing wrong, as at the end of the day they first, maximizing profits for the shareholders and second, they are doing nothing illegal. (Aune, 2007, p. 216) Therefore, according to Friedman all that matters is profit maximization, even over consumer interest and the public. Friedmans logic is irrational; as we have seen from the example some profit-maximizing actions might threaten the security of the society which is far more important than the prosperity than any corporation. Summarizing the limitations of Milton Friedmans with globalisation developing the role of corporations changed since the time Friedman was studying economics, now with globalization it is far more integrated into the society and both of them have to work together in order to prosper as a whole, because a business will never be successful if the employers are unhappy and vice versa. Moreover, as specified above Friedmans arguments are based on assumptions and as in James Aune states the opponents of CSR [should] argue for their assumptions as well as their conclusions (Aune, 2007, p. 216) Or his assumption that Market capitalism working by managers of corporations doing their role of satisfying the shareholders by creating profits. However at the same time he discounts the fact that social justice as an essential part of the utility many consumers or shareholders may wish to maximize (Aune, 2007, p. 213), again assuming that all shareholders do not wish to maximize utility but instead want to make profits. Traditional View of Corporate Social Responsibility Expectedly not everyone agrees with the views of M. Friedman on CSR among scientists, and entrepreneurs. In recent years, the social responsibility of business is seen as social advantage of the company. This idea was first suggested a professor at Harvard Business School, author of the theory of competitive advantage by Michael Porter in his article in the Harvard Business Review Ã «New issue of philanthropy the creation of value in 1999 Porter points out that social programs are now used mainly by companies as a form of Ã «public relationsÃ » or promotional purposes. For example, the tobacco digging Philip Morris (USA) in 1999, has spent $ 75 million to various donations, and then spent another $ 100 million on their advertising campaign. However, there is another way in the implementation of socially responsible business: companies can also strengthen their competitive position by improving the quality of the business environment in the places where their activities are unfolding. As noted by M. Porter, using philanthropy as a competitive advantage of the company allows you to link social and economic goals and improve the long-term prospects of its development. Corporate Social Responsibility and Performance Friedman argues in his essay that companies are better off when they are maximize their profits, however this is not always the case. The image of a socially responsible company an investment in its business reputation. In fact, all other things being equal, people are more willing to go to work in a socially responsible than a socially irresponsible company, will buy its products, services, or actions. Suppliers and business partners will also be more interested in cooperation with the firm, which has a high reputation. Thus, in the long term, when various groups, ensure the correct behaviour of the company, it is likely to increase its income. As written before, economy is interlinked not only with the society but also with the government and the fact that companies that behave in a socially responsible economic manner, not only improves the society, but also has some other benefits, such as, participation in the implementation of government orders. Additionally, due to growing environmental and social problems CSR will always be a big topic, therefore more and more enforced regulations will be implemented like for example production standards or service quality or pollution quota, companies that are more socially responsible will therefore be prepared and would not need radical structural changes like the companies that did not engage in socially responsibility. Finally, company that is socially responsible towards its employees will benefit from the favourable working climate and higher motivation that will further increase efficiency and output of the company. Moreover many texts argue that companies, especially large MNC have the financial resources to be more socially responsible. However in my opinion this argument is flawed as the availability of the financial resources does not necessary indicate the incentive to spend them. Finally an example where CSR and Performance are positively correlated is in an article on Corporate Social Responsibility (Todd, Kristin, Baylor Business Review) Hollender CEO of Seventh Generation who was voted the best Social CEO of the year talks about transparency of the companies as the main stepping-stone towards social responsibility, he says that Greater transparency is just the first step towards taking greater responsibility for the future that all of us are creating and WhatsÃ trueÃ ofÃ transparencyÃ isÃ likewiseÃ trueÃ ofÃ SeventhÃ GenerationsÃ effortÃ toÃ notÃ onlysucceedÃ inÃ theÃ marketplaceÃ andÃ contributeÃ toÃ society,Ã butÃ toÃ influenceÃ othersÃ toÃ contributeasÃ well,Ã heÃ writes.Ã ItsÃ aÃ challenging,Ã sometimesÃ evenÃ bewilderingÃ odysseyÃ thatÃ testsÃ thespiritÃ andÃ willÃ ofÃ eachÃ andÃ everyÃ oneÃ ofÃ us. (Todd, 2009) There are limitations with defining CSR and there is no specific line that can be drawn to separate socially responsible and non-socially responsible companies, and the extent to how socially responsible the companies are. Therefore it is very difficult to see the effect of CSR on the performance on the company. Table 2.1 (CorporateÃ SocialÃ ResponsibilityÃ andÃ TraditionalÃ FinancialÃ Performance:Ã SummaryÃ ofÃ 21EmpiricalÃ StudiesÃ Ã PrincipalÃ Findings) (Pava Krausz, 1995, p. 21) below, however, tries to demonstrate the effect of CSR on the financial performance. A study of 21 companies was conducted to see the correlation, if there is any, between CSR and financial performance. TABLEÃ 2.1Ã DirectionÃ ofAssociation 1993Ã Results* UllmannÃ (Ã 1985)Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã PositiveÃ Association 12 8 NegativeÃ Association 1 1 NoÃ Association 8 4 Totals 21 13 From the following the main observation that is visible is that from the 21 one studies conducted more than half, 12 studies showed a positive association between CSR and financial performance, only 1 showed a negative association and 8 showed no correlation between the two. From this table we can conclude that CSR Firms do not perform worse than non-CSR this already goes again Milton Friedmans theory that firms maximizing profits would do better than firms engaged in CSR. As he argues that any action that benefits the company cannot be socially responsible. However we have a different view from a professor of University of California in his article: CSR Doesnt Pay, he looks at we have previously discussed in the essay, the correlation between CSR and performance of the corporation. He writes that TheÃ goodÃ newsÃ isÃ thatÃ firmsÃ withÃ superiorÃ CSRÃ performanceÃ haveÃ notperformedÃ anyÃ worseÃ thanÃ theirÃ lessÃ virtuousÃ competitors.Ã ButÃ theÃ disappointingÃ newsÃ isthatÃ neitherÃ haveÃ theyÃ doneÃ anyÃ better.Ã ForÃ mostÃ firms,Ã mostÃ ofÃ theÃ time,Ã CSRÃ isÃ largelyirrelevantÃ toÃ theirÃ financialÃ performance. VogelÃ givesÃ StarbucksÃ asÃ anÃ example.Ã StarbucksÃ providesÃ anÃ exampleÃ ofÃ theÃ limitedimportanceÃ ofÃ CSRÃ toÃ financialÃ performance,Ã heÃ writes.Ã TheÃ firmÃ enjoysÃ aÃ strongÃ CSRreputationÃ dueÃ toÃ itsÃ generousÃ laborÃ policiesÃ andÃ itsÃ commitmentÃ toÃ i mproveÃ theÃ earningsandÃ environmentalÃ practicesÃ ofÃ coffeeÃ growersÃ inÃ developingÃ countries.Ã Yet,Ã sinceÃ thebeginningÃ ofÃ 2008,Ã itsÃ sharesÃ haveÃ recentlyÃ declinedÃ nearlyÃ 50Ã percent. (Todd, 2009) ,ToÃ assumeÃ thatÃ theÃ businessÃ environmentÃ hasÃ fundamentallyÃ changedÃ andÃ thatÃ weÃ areenteringÃ aÃ newÃ worldÃ inÃ whichÃ CSRÃ hasÃ becomeÃ criticalÃ toÃ theÃ successÃ ofÃ allÃ orÃ evenÃ mostfirmsÃ isÃ misinformed.Ã TheÃ marketÃ hasÃ manyÃ virtues,Ã butÃ reconcilingÃ corporateÃ goalsÃ andpublicÃ purposesÃ isÃ unfortunatelyÃ notÃ amongÃ them. (Todd, 2009) What Vogel says in this example is that CSR is completely irrelevant with the performance of the company and has no effect on the stock performance. Finally Vogel states that there is no karma in business and that good things will not happen to those who do good ManagersÃ shouldÃ tryÃ toÃ actÃ moreÃ responsibly.Ã ButÃ theyÃ shouldÃ notÃ expectÃ theÃ marketÃ tonecessarilyÃ rewardÃ them-Ã orÃ punishÃ theirÃ lessÃ responsibleÃ competitors. (Todd, 2009) Summarizing the part performance and CSR, first the study talked about the positive aspects of the CSR and how it could help the corporations improve. Second part presented a study that demonstrated that companies involved in CSR do not do worse than companies that maximize profits. Finally the third part shows Vogels interpretations of CSR in terms of financial performance and that showed us that there is no correspondence with between the two. (Todd, 2009) Conclusion Social changes in society are successful when they consciously and responsibly involved the most significant force. Interaction of political, social and economic subjects, based on the principles of social partnership, ensures stable and gradual development of the state. With the increasing importance of non-financial factors of sustainable development, such as social stability, environmental safety, updated theoretical and practical aspects of social responsibility. Relevance of research associated with the processes of globalization, reinforcing the role of large companies in the economic development. Nation-states are gradually yielding to pressure multinational corporations and economic independence, and social policy. Counter this trend is to be co-ordinated action, ensuring the achievement of indicators of social responsibility, which comply with international standards and principles of sustainable development. Market globalization, the transformation of the national in the world, identifies the need for an economic entity of innovation in engineering, technology, labor and management, based on the use and application of science and best practices. At the center of all these phenomena is the intellectual capital the quality of the labor force and motivation. The lack of comprehensive scientific developments in the field of modern management, social technologies complicates the interaction of domestic enterprises, government and society. In the implementation of socially responsible policy, the role of corporate governance, ensuring the achievement of social, economic and environmental goals of the enterprise. Science-based decision management problems can provide an enabling social and psychological conditions of the enterprise, to influence the development of relations with stakeholders in a timely manner to prevent social tensions, without violating the principles of economic efficiency. Social responsibility is also manifested in the implementation of commitments made at the level of functional units of the organization, especially top management. Develop procedures for social policy, social programs, the performance criteria must comply with the rules and principles of public law. One way of forming objective information about the social impact of the company is to evaluate the effectiveness of non-financial risks, including social. Actual development of common approaches to assessing the effectiveness of the implementation of socially responsible policies. Evaluation of the quality management affects the position of the company in the financial markets, maintaining a conflict-existence of society, sustainable development. (CSR)VogelÃ says,ToÃ assumeÃ thatÃ theÃ businessÃ environmentÃ hasÃ fundamentallyÃ changedÃ andÃ thatÃ weÃ areenteringÃ aÃ newÃ worldÃ inÃ whichÃ CSRÃ hasÃ becomeÃ criticalÃ toÃ theÃ successÃ ofÃ allÃ orÃ evenÃ mostfirmsÃ isÃ misinformed.Ã
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
It was a hard day for me. My dog of almost 7 years had to be put down, and it was the first pet I had ever lost. My dad wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t too keen on me getting a new puppy. We started looking at other dogs and my dad found one that he thought we should get. My parents decided to take me on a surprise trip to the animal shelter to get a better look at the dogs that we wanted to adopt. As we entered the dog room, barks started to echo around us and excited dogs jumped up on their kennels to make sure we saw them. As we got to MackÃ¢â¬â¢s cage, I think his puppy face must have melted my dadÃ¢â¬â¢s heart because he agreed to adopt him and take him home. Today, years later, I still believe adopting Mack was one of the best decisions I could have made. Through adopting Mack, I was inspired to volunteer at the animal shelter as soon as I was old enough. One day I went up just to look at animals and I realized that there were many dogs that had been in the shelter for a long time. No one was interested in adopting them because they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t a popular breed, or they were not the right color. From that day forward, I decided that I was going to find a way for those dogs to be adopted, so they had the chance to be as happy as Mack is, in a home and out of a shelter. By finding a way to positively promote breeds prone to indifference, unwanted color, and through establishing positive behaviors and character, animal shelters will be able to increase canine adoption. One of the most significantly impacting characteristics on adoption success is breed preference. Because some breeds are Ã¢â¬Å"talked upÃ¢â¬ more than others, for example, beagles compared to pitbulls, people would be more likely to lean towards a beagle if they had to choose between those two breeds for... ...olor and breed are not able to be changed, but by changing the behaviors of a dog, a shelter could increase the dogs appeal no matter the breed and color. Works Cited Woodward, Lucinda, Jennifer Milliken, and Sonya Humy. "Give A Dog A Bad Name And Hang Him: Evaluating Big, Black Dog Syndrome." Society & Animals 20.3 (2012): 236-253. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. Siettou, Christina, Iain Fraser, and Rob Fraser. Kent University. 2012. PowerPoint. secure.fera.defra.gov.ukWeb. 14 Mar 2014. . DeLeeuw, Jamie L. Animal Shelter Dogs: Factors Predicting Adoption Versus Euthanasia. (2010): n. page. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. . . N.p.. Web. 14 Mar 2014. .
Sunday, November 10, 2019
ACTUS REUS: OMISSION & CAUSATION The general basis for imposing liability inÃ criminal lawÃ is that the defendant must be proved to have committed a guilty act whilst having had a guilty state of mind. The physical elements are collectively called the actus reus and the accompanied mental state is called the mens rea. It is the fundamental duty of the prosecution to prove both of these elements of the offence to the satisfaction of the judge or jury beyond reasonable doubt. In the absence of such proof the defendant will be acquitted.ACTUS REUS An actus reus consists of more than just an act. It also consists of whatever circumstances and consequences are recognised for liability for the offence in question Ã¢â¬â in other words all the elements of an offence other than the mental element. The term actus reus has been given a much wider meaning by Glanville Williams in his criminal law. He says : When he use the technical tern actus reus we include all the external circumstance s and consequences specified in the rule of law as constituting the forbidden situation.Reus must be taken as indicating the situation specified in the actus reus as on that, given any necessary mental element, is forbidden by law. In other words, acus reus means the whole definition of the crime with the exception of the mental element Ã¢â¬â and it even includes a mental element in so far as that is contained in the definition of an act. Actus reus includes negative as well as positive elements. For example, as stared earlier, the actus reus of murder is the causing of death of a person.It also includes circumstances, such as the person whose death has been caused was not as a consequence of a sentence or death given to him or that the death was caused within the territorial jurisdiction of the state. OMISSIONS IN CRIMES Omissions are controversial for two main reasons_ first, whether and to what extent it is justifiable omissions rather than acts; and secondly, whether liabilit y for omissions rather than act requirement in criminal law. Pursuing the second point here, much has been made above of the importance f requiring proof that the defendant voluntarily did something to produce prohibited conduct or consequence. In so far as this can be termed an Ã¢â¬Ëact requirementÃ¢â¬â¢, are omissions a true exception to it? If they are, is this another argument against criminalizing them? One much-discussed preliminary question is the distinction between acts and omissions. Sometimes it is argued that certain verbs imply action and therefore exclude liability for omissions, and that the criminal law should respect. The distinctions flowing from this. English courts have often used this linguistic or interpretive approach.It has led to a variety of decisions in different statutes, without much discussion of the general principles underlying omissions liability. The law commissions considerably draft criminal code may be said to signal the continuation of this approach, by redefining the homicide offences in terms of Ã¢â¬Ëcausing deathÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than Ã¢â¬ËkillingÃ¢â¬â¢, and refining the damage offences in terms of Ã¢â¬Ëcausing damageÃ¢â¬â¢, rather than Ã¢â¬ËdamagingÃ¢â¬â¢, so as Ã¢â¬Ëto leave fully open the courts the possibility of so constructing the relevant (statutory) provisions as to impose liability for omissionsÃ¢â¬â¢.The draft cod would therefore remove any linguistic awkwardness in saying, for example, that a parent killed a child by failing to feed it; but it does so in this specific instance, and without proclaiming a general principle, that the act requirement may be fulfilled by an omission of a duty can be established. Attachment to the vagaries of the language is no proper basis for delineating the boundaries of criminal liability.In some situations the courts, following the linguistic approach, have nevertheless found themselves able to impose omissions liability. In Speck (1977)3 the defendant was charged with committing an act of gross indecency with or towards a child. The evidence was that an 8 yr old girl placed her hand on his trousers over his penis. he allowed that hand to remain there for some minutes, causing him to have an erection.The court of appeal held that the defendants failure to remove the hand amounted to an invitation to the child with the act, or it created a duty in an adult to put an end to the innocent touching of this kind, with omissions liability for not fulfilling the duty. The analysis is similar to that in miller (1983) where D fell asleep whilst smoking, woke up to find the mattress smouldering, but simply left the room and went to sleep elsewhere. He was convicted of causing criminal damage by fire, on the basis that a person who initiates a sequence of events nnocently and then fails to do anything to stop the sequence should be regarded as having caused the whole sequence. On this view the conduct constitutes a single, continuing act; Miller caused the damage because he took no steps to extinguish the fire he had innocently started. It must be doubted whether these efforts to find an act which then coincides in point in point of time with defendants knowledge and intentions are convincing. surely the courts are imposing liability for an omission on these cases, by recognizing that a duty arises.Speck is a little different from miller since the original act of the speck was of the girl, and the duty must therefore amount the recognition of an obligation on an adult to put an end to the indecent yet innocent touching by a child. In so far as these decisions appear to extend the statutory wording, are they objectionable on grounds of retroactivity and lack of fair warning, or defensible as applications of existing common law doctrine to new situations?In other situations it seems possible to offer plausible reasons for regarding the same event as either an act or an omission, and in some cases the courts have sought to exp loit this ambiguity when dealing with problematic medical issues. Yet it is one thing to say that a healthcare professional who decides not to replace an empty bag for a drip-feed has made an omission, whereas switching a ventilator off is an act; is another thing to maintain that the act-omission distinction should be crucial to any determination of the criminal liability in the two situations.In Airedale NHS trust v bland (1993)the house of lords held that it would be lawful for a doctor to withdraw treatment from a patient in a persistent vegetative state, even though death would inevitable be hastened by that conduct. The house held that the withdrawal of treatment would constitute and omission, and thus regarded the duties of the doctor as the central issue. The decision was that the doctor a doctor has no duty to continue life supplying treatment when it is no longer in the best interest of the patient, having regard to responsible medical opinion.However the court of appeal d eclined to adopt this subterfuge in Re A(conjoined twins: Surgical separation), holding that the surgical separation of the twins would undoubtedly an act, and subsequently deciding that carrying out an operation which would result in the death of one twin in order to save the life of other could be justifies on the grounds of necessity. This demonstration of the fragility of the act-omission distinction of the vagaries fthe English language indicates that it may be simplistic to oppose omissions liability in the principle.There are some clear cases of omission in which it is desirable to have criminal liability, such as the parent who neglects to feed her or his child or neglects to protect it from abuse. Omissions can be involuntary or not, in the same way as acts; and provided, that the harm resulted because D failed to intervene, it can be argued that omissions are also causes. Omissions liability ay therefore satisfy the principles that no one should be held liable for bodily m ovements that he or she did not or could not direct.It may also satisfy the principle that no person should be held liable for the conduct or consequences that he or she did not cause. But one point of the act requirement is to exclude liability for mere thoughts that do not result in some bodily movement, and omissions fall foul to that. They do so for a good reason Ã¢â¬â that certain positive duties to act are so important that they can rightly be made the subject of criminal liability. Of course, such a duty should also be defined with sufficient certainty and made known to those affected by it.So long as these formal requirements are fulfilled there can be no fairness objection to holding a person liable, provided that he or she is capable of taking some steps to carry out the duty. CAUSATION IN CRIMES An event is very often the result of a number of factors. A factor is said to have caused a particular event if, without that factor or, the event would not have happened. Thus , a man is said to have caused the actus reus of a crime, if, that actus would not have occurred without his participation in what was done. Some casual relationships has to be established between his conduct and the prohibited result.A man is usually held criminally liable only for the consequences of his conduct as he foresaw, (or is crimes of negligence, he ought to have foreseen). The act must be the causa causans, ie, the immediate or proximate cause of the effect. When the facts are direct and simple, then establishing the causal nexus between the act and the effect may not be difficult, as for instance in a case of person shooting another person and thereby killing him. The causation can also be without any direct physical act. if the victim asks his way on a dark night nd the accused with the intention of causing his death, directs him to a path that he knows will bring him to a cliff edge , and the victing suffers a fatal fall, this is clearly murder, though the accused has done nothing more than utter words. This can be true in cases of abetment, incitement and conspiracy. In the instances stated above, it is not difficult to establish the direct result between the cause and the effect. The difficulty arises only in cases of multiple causation, where it is difficult to establish the imputability. Example: A, intending to kill B but only wounds him very slightly.A clearly has the requisite mens rea for murder, that is, he foresees and desires BÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Not let us assume that on his being ta ken to the hospital in an ambulance, a piece of masonry from a building falls on the ambulance and kills B; or, alternatively, that B has a rare blood disease which prevents his blood from coagulation so that the slight wound leads to his death, which it would not have done if he had not been suffering from this disease; or, alternatively, that B refuses to have the wound treated and dies of blood poisoning, which would not have occurred if B had had the wo unded treated.In all these cases, a problem of causation arises, i. e. , did A cause BÃ¢â¬â¢s death for the purposes of the criminal law so that he can be convicted of murder? If the result is too remote and accidental in its occurrence, then there is no criminal liability. CAUSATION AND NEGLIGENCE The difficulty of causation arises very often n cases of negligence. It has t be established that first, the conduct of the person was negligent and secondly, that but for the negligent act of accused, the accident would not have occurred. In other words, the actus reus should be causally connected to the act, which should be proved to be a negligent.In order to impose criminal liability under S 304A, IPC, it is essential to establish that death is the direct result of the rash or (and) negligent act of the accused. It must be causa causans Ã¢â¬â the immediate cause and not enough that it may be quasa sine qua non, ie, proximate cause. There can be no conviction when rashness or negl igence of third party intervenes. In Suleman rahiman mulani v state of Maharashtra the Supreme Court has approved his rule. In Suleman rahiman mulani the accused who was driving the jeep struck the deceased, as a result of which he sustained serious injuries. The ccused put the injured person in the jeep for medical treatment, but he died. Thereafter, the accused cremated the body. The accused was charged under s304A and 201 of the IPC. As per s 304A, there must be direct nexus between the death of a person and rash and negligent act of the accused that caused the death of the deceased. It was the case of the prosecution of the accused had possessed only a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s license and hence was guilty of causing the death of the deceased. The court held that there was no presumption in law that a person who possesses only a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s license or possesses no license at all, does not know driving.A person could for various reasons, including sheer indifference, might not have b een taken a regular license . there was evidence to show that the accused had driven the jeep to various places on the previous day of occurrence. So before the accused convicted under s304A, there must a proof that the accused drove in a rash and negligent manner and death was a direct consequence of such rash and negligent manner. In the absence of such evidence no offence under s 304A was made out. The accused was acquitted of the charges. MINIMAL CAUSATIONWhen death of a person is caused after medical treatment, it cannot be said that the treatment was not proper or inadequate, or had better treatment been given, the death would not have taken place. This is because, the intervention of the doctor is in the nature of minimum causation and hence its intervention would have played only a minor part, if any, in causing death. As far as the IPC is concerned, explanation 2 of s 299 specifically states that if an act causes death, even death could have been avoided by proper remedies and skilful treatment, the act shall be deemed to have caused death and the person will be criminally liable.If death results from an injury voluntarily caused, the person who causes the injury, therefore, is deemed to have caused the death, although the life of victim might have been saved if proper medical treatment, provided that it was administered in good faith by a competent physician or surgeon. In Moti singh v state of uttar Pradesh the deceased gayacharan had received two gunshot wounds in the abdomen which were dangerous to life. The injury was received on February 1960. There was no evidence when he was discharged from the hospital and whether he had fully recovered or not.He, however, died on march 1 1960. His body was cremated without post mortem being done. The supreme court held that the two gunshot injuries were dangerous to life were not sufficient for holding that gyancharans death, which took place about three weeks after the incident, was on account of the injuri es received by him. The court observed that in order to prove the charges on gyancharans murder, it was necessary to establish that he had died on account of injuries received on him.Since, the was no evidence to establish the cause of death, the accused could not be said to have caused the death of gyancharan. A crucial aspect highlighted by the court in the case was that the connection between the primary cause and the death should not be too remote. CONCLUSION Causation is a complex topic, with which we have been able to deal only brief here. Proof of causation is often said to be an essential precondition of criminal liability, but there is reason to doubt the generality of that requirement, notably in respect of accomplice liability and vicarious criminal liability.Rather than insisting on a universal requirement of causation, it may be preferable to argue that liability should be negatived, in general, by the voluntary intervening act of another. Several criticisms of the judi cial approach to three exceptional categories of case hace been advanced above. Often the explanations given by the courts are unconvincing. Whilst the traditional or standard causal theory emphasizes the significance of the last voluntary act, there is no reluctance to took wider or to massage the term Ã¢â¬ËvoluntaryÃ¢â¬â¢ in certain situations, especially where D clearly stated that the sequence of events by doing a wrongful act.The challenge is to re-examine the intuitions that lead judges and others to their conclusions (the wrongful act theory, the approach to medical mistakes etc. ) with a view to constructing a law that ensures that the courts respect the various principles . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. P. S. A. Pillai Ã¢â¬â Criminal law 2. Glanville Williams book on criminal law 3. www. lawteacher. com Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 1 ]. Page 427, principles of criminal law, Glanville will iams [ 2 ]. Duff, criminal attempts, 317-20 Glanville Williams [ 3 ]. 65 CR App R 161. [ 4 ]. (1983) 2 AC 161 [ 5 ]. Criticisms by jc smith (1982) Crim LR 527 and 724, and D.Husak, philosophy of criminal law(1987), 176-8 [ 6 ]. See I. M Kennedy, Treat me right (1988) 169-74 [ 7 ]. (1993) AC 789 [ 8 ]. 4 ALL ER 961 [ 9 ]. Emery (1993) 14 Cr App R (s) 394, aand the new duty by the domestic violence, crime and victims act 2004. [ 10 ]. Glanville Williams, Ã¢â¬Ëcriminal law- causationÃ¢â¬â¢) [ 11 ]. Rustom sherior Irani v state of Maharashtra(1969) ACC Cj 79 (SC) [ 12 ]. Md rangawalla v state of mahaarashtra AIR 1965 [ 13 ]. However a driver is expected to anticipate reasonably foreseeable negligent act to road users as contributory negligence has no application in criminal law. [ 14 ]. Re san pai (1936) 14 rang 643